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Jupiter (Planet)

Summary Article: Jupiter (astronomy) from The Crystal Reference Encyclopedia
The fifth planet from the Sun, and the innermost of the giant outer planets. It contains two-thirds of the matter in the Solar System, apart from the Sun. It has been observed in close-up by five space probes: Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyagers 1 and 2, and Galileo. Its basic characteristics are: mass 1·90 × 1027 kg; equatorial radius 71 492 km/44 423 mi; polar radius 66 854 km/41 541 mi; mean density 1·33 g/cm3; rotational period 9 h 55 min 41 s; orbital period 11·9 years; inclination of equator to orbit 3·1°; mean distance from the Sun 5·203 AU. It is made primarily of hydrogen (82%) and helium (17%), and believed to have an innermost core of terrestrial composition of 5–10 Earth masses, a large outer core of hydrogen and helium in a metallic phase, a liquid hydrogen/helium mantle, and a deep gaseous atmosphere. The planet has a significant internal source of heat, and radiates twice as much heat from inside as it receives fro...    Continue Reading
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