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Lavoisier, Antoine

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Definition: Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent from

The Macquarie Dictionary

1743-94, French chemist whose concepts form the basis of modern chemistry; his discovery that oxygen was involved in combustion, respiration and rusting disproved the phlogiston theory.

Summary Article: Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent from The Columbia Encyclopedia
Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent (äNtwän´ lōräN´ lävwäzyā´), 1743-94, French chemist and physicist, a founder of modern chemistry. He studied under eminent men of his day, won early recognition, and was admitted to the Academy of Sciences in 1768. Much of his work was the result of extending and coordinating the research of others; his concepts were largely evolved through his superior ability to organize and interpret and were substantiated by his own experiments. He was one of the first to introduce effective quantitative methods in the study of chemical reactions. He explained combustion and thereby discredited the phlogiston theory. He also described clearly the role of oxygen in the respiration of both animals and plants. His classification of substances is the basis of the modern distinction between chemical elements and compounds and of the system of chemical nomenclature. He also conducted experiments to establish the composition of water and of...    Continue Reading
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