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Marx, Karl

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German founder of modern communism, in England from 1849. With Engels, he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848). He developed his theories of the class struggle and the economics of capitalism in Das Kapital (1867; 1885; 1895). He was one of the founders of the International Workingmen's Association (First International) (1864).

Philosopher and social theorist, who gave his name to one of the most important political movements and analytical perspectives of the last two hundred years. Marx’s works cover economic theory and analysis, historical analysis, philosophy and moral theory, political interventions and polemics. Over the span of his writing different phases can be made out. The early works, which were only widely available from the 1950s, such as the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, show a mainly humanist ethical and philosophical concentration of ideas. They particularly foreground the notion of alienation. The later works, such as Capital, consist of detailed economic analysis, aiming to expose the ‘laws of motion’ of capitalism. The intent, though, was political – to encourage and support revolutionary change. A...    Continue Reading

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